Who has not ever smelled a cannabis plant and has exclaimed: Hmmmm that smells good! I love that smell! regardless of whether you are a consumer or not. Well, today a whole business team is being created dedicated to the aromas of our beloved cannabis plant, which to be more specific are called terpenes, and from CannaInform we want to help you better understand what they are, of where they are extracted, their qualities and their possible uses in modern life, and all this in a very simple way.
You will read about:
WHAT ARE TERPENES?
The terpenes are the main constituent of essential oils (aroma and flavor) of plants and flowers such as lemon or orange and of course cannabis. They are the fundamental pieces of the aromas that we appreciate when being around, consuming or manipulating plants, flowers and fruits, being able to find more than 100 different types of terpenes only in cannabis .
The so-called terpenes or what is the same in this case, the aroma and flavor of marijuana, are basically aromatic molecules , where monoterpenes would be those found in the highest proportion, such as Eucalyptol, Linalol, Limonene, Pinene, Myrcene, etc … But they are also composed of Sesquiterpenes, caryophyllene and triterpenes, with a lower presence than those mentioned above, but which still play a very important role in the final aroma, since depending on the proportion of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes we will obtain aromas or others. There are also terpenes that do not appear in the flower clusters of cannabis plants and if in other parts such as in the roots, this is the case of triterpenes.
We have to know that depending on the variety and its genetic wealth, they will be made up of one type or another of terpenes and in greater or lesser amounts. This added to several factors, such as our ability to grow, growing medium, range of products (organic or chemical), the growing area, the weather, cutting, drying, curing, etc …, will make it possible for us to harvest. our plants with a spectacular aromatic richness or simply a passable marijuana (organoleptically speaking).
A little tip that will come in handy for all lovers of aromas and who want to obtain the greatest potential of terpene from their harvestss would be to harvest in the morning, in the case of being an outdoor crop. This is done to avoid harvesting at high temperatures and to avoid volatilization of a high percentage of terpenes. And in the case of being an indoor crop, we would cut our harvest as soon as the lighting systems were turned on , for the same reason mentioned above, the volatilization of a high percentage of terpenes due to the high temperatures produced by the light bulbs. culture.
WHERE ARE TERPENES FORMED?
The terpenes are developed within the resiníferas or trichomes glands (bulbous trichomes, sessile capitate trichomes and tricoma capitado notching) and depending on which part of the plant to form, if sheet or in will be flower richer in monoterpenes or sesquiterpenes.
As you well know, within the resin gland, terpenes are not alone, but rather they share an apartment with other types of components such as cannabinoids , psychoactive THC, non-psychoactive such as CBD and others. So this makes us see that the amount or percentage of terpenes compared to the total volume of plant mass in marijuana plants is minimal (minus 1%) in fresh and dry it would be around (0.1%), and even so, it has managed to captivate us with incredibly striking aromas. Imagine a variety that was composed of 10% terpenes of the total plant mass… ..it would be incredible !!
FUNCTION OF TERPENES IN MARIJUANA PLANTS
The terpenes have several important functions for the health and welfare of the cannabis plant, are not just for decorating plants with their rich aromas.
The attraction of beneficial insects that will help to spread the fertile pollen of the male plants between the female plants, would be one of the most important tasks, since it directly influences the success of a possible fertilization of fertile pollen in females prepared for fertilization and start the playback process. On the other hand, it protects it to a certain extent against the attack of harmful pests and fungi , thanks to the combination of different types of terpenes that will make their stay uncomfortable, but it will also protect it by attracting beneficial predatory insects that will help it combat the possible plague or plagues to come.
We have to know and take into account that terpenes are not only aromas and flavors of the flora that surround us, but also have a proven and effective repellent and medicinal effect.
TYPES OF TERPENES IN MARIJUANA
Myrcene or Beta-myrcene, is the main essential oil of twild omillo, but we can also find it in hops, mango and cannabis. It acts as an anti-inflammatory, analgesic, muscle relaxant, helps to fall asleep in aromatherapy treatments and enhances the effect of cannabis by improving their passage to the brain. Myrcene is a terpene with the highest presence in indica varieties, exceeding 50%. In combination with THC it creates a synergistic effect helping to obtain a more physical and corporal effect, more typical of indica varieties.
Pinene, is the main essential oil of pine resin, templedo one of the most widespread terpenes in nature. Antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, broncho-dilating properties are attributed to it that would help cannabinoids to penetrate deeper into the lungs and be absorbed in a greater proportion. Pinene can make up up to 20% of the total terpene composition in a plant.
Limonene is the main component of the essential oils of citruscos. One of the most widespread terpenes in nature. Repellent, insecticidal, anti-septic, anxiolytic and dermatological properties are attributed to it. Widely used as a flavoring in the food and pharmaceutical industry. And especially in cleaning products (bleaches, dishwashers, air fresheners, etc …).
Linalol is the main aromatic component of lavender and also of many other types of plants. Commonly used in cleaning and hygiene products for its pleasant aroma and as an insecticide. Anxiolytic, anesthetic, anti-convulsive, sedative properties are attributed to it, as a balm against skin burns. The possible synergistic combination with THC on the one hand, creates a more sedative and analgesic effect, but also creates synergy with CBD and / or THCV and / or CBDV, being able to have an anti-convulsive effect, beneficial in epilepsy cases.
Eucalyptol, is the main component of the essential oil of eucalyptus, canndo get to make up almost 100% of its essential oil. We can also find it widely spread in the plant kingdom. Repellent and insecticidal properties are attributed to it, also against asthma, sinusitis, as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, immunosuppressive properties, anti-leukemic properties. Eucalyptol is found almost entirely in sativa varieties, being 5% of the total terpenes created, in indica varieties it reaches a poor 1% of the total terpenes created.
Caryophyllene, with an aroma reminiscent of black pepper, isa mixture of three components, Alpha-Carophyllene, Beta-Karyophyllene and Caryophyllene Oxide). All these terpenic compounds are present in all varieties of marijuana. Due to its high resistance to decarboxylation, it is one of the terpenes with the highest presence in extractions. It has insecticidal, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-blood coagulant, gastric protector properties. It is also authorized for human consumption and is one of the components with which police dogs are trained to detect cannabis.
Terpinol is found in a wide range of flowers, but especially in lilacs. Commonly used by the cosmetics industry for its pleasant aroma. Relaxing and sedative properties are attributed to it.
SYNERGY AND ANTAGONISMS BETWEEN TERPENES AND CANNABIONOIDS
Many times we associate cannabis odors with certain effects and this is partly true. Growers with many years of experience and hundreds of tastings behind them, are able to guess, based on the genetics and the aromas it contains, the effect that it will cause when consuming it. This means, my friends, that terpenes can enhance (synergy) or on the contrary cancel (antagonism) the effects of cannabis depending on the combination of terpenes that the plant contains (I know of a bank that has selected the plants with which work only because it contains a high percentage of terpenes that enhances the effect of THC).
That is why many times the same varieties worked from cutting or from seed (especially if they are clones) can have different effects just because the production of terpenes of a specimen and its clone have been slightly different. This indicates that terpenes have a direct relationship in the effect of cultivated genetics and not only in flavors and aromas. Therefore, this fact will change the way in which new genetics are created (if it has not already done so) and especially in the way in which we make our personal choice. If we are about to make the purchase of our seeds in the future for a new crop, we will be able to know, on the one hand, the psychoactive potential since almost all banks have studies on the amount of cannabinoids that their varieties produce, but also,
This opens a new door for the world of medicinal and recreational cannabis, which is already being exploited and studied today for the benefit of the industry and consumers.
WHAT ARE TERPENES USED FOR?
In the case of marijuana terpenes , their use is becoming more and more widespread today. Today both growers and consumers use them for the following:
-Enhance the aroma and flavor of low-quality cannabis or hashish.
-Add them to extractions low in terpenes caused by the use of solvents and high temperatures or by using a raw material low in terpenoids.
-Add them to new products rich in CBD but with not very pleasant flavors.
-To add them to tobacco and give it a special touch.
Terpenes, or essential oils, have their main role in today’s society in their use for aromatherapy , which is very widespread as a healing method for some diseases that is based on the effects produced by aromas in the body. From which we can benefit in different ways, since depending on the plant and the terpenes that compose it, we will obtain relaxing, stimulating and even aphrodisiac effects.
Depending on the type of essential oil with which we go to work, we can use it for massages, as an air freshener for Turkish baths or saunas, relaxation therapies, Pilates, yoga etc … This type of use of essential oils is very widespread and there is plenty of it. known.
Also, as we have commented before, they are used to give organoleptic qualities to a large number of household, cosmetic and food products , since they are normally obtained naturally and are free of toxins.
Another widely used use in recent years is its use in electronic cigarette liquids , both the terpenes of cannabis and those of other plants.
Here is a brief summary of the types of plants and their essential oils that can be used medicinally.
EFFECTS OF ESSENTIAL OILS:
-Relaxing: amaro, cypress, carnation, juniper, galbanum, ylang-ylang, cedar, mandarin, chamomile, marjoram, myrrh, neroli, rose, sandalwood and vetiver.
-Stimulants: angelica, cinnamon, cardamom, cloves, elemi, eucalyptus, fennel, ginger, lime, mint, orange, palmarosa, petit grain, black pepper, pine, grapefruit and rosemary.
-Aphrodisiacs: angelica, cinnamon, cardamom, coriander, carnation, cloves, galbanum, ylang-ylang, jasmine, ginger, cedar wood, neroli, patchouli, rosemary, rose, sandalwood and vetiver.
PROPERTIES OF SOME TYPES OF ESSENTIAL OILS
-Basil oil: it is traditionally used for headaches and respiratory problems.
-Jasmine oil: It has a pleasant sweet aroma and is used as a relaxing “aphrodisiac”, as a toner and for sprains.
-Lavender oil: it is the most used, it is attributed antiseptic, aphrodisiac, relaxing, healing and antipyretic properties.
-Rose Oil: It has a pleasant sweet and penetrating aroma. It is used for menstrual problems.
-Sandalwood oil : Oil with the smell of wood which is used as a relaxant in meditation and for dry skin.
-Rosemary oil: It is one of the most used essential oils. It is stimulating, also used to combat muscle aches and respiratory conditions. It stands out for its antiseptic properties. It is an oil that people with hypertension or epilepsy should avoid.